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A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Norske artikler - 13 min 27 sek siden
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A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 14;7(24):37250-37259

Authors: Halvorsen AR, Bjaanæs M, LeBlanc M, Holm AM, Bolstad N, Rubio L, Peñalver JC, Cervera J, Mojarrieta JC, López-Guerrero JA, Brustugun OT, Helland Å

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosis, predication and prognostication of diseases. Lung cancer is the cancer disease accountable for most cancer deaths, largely due to being diagnosed at late stages. Therefore, diagnosing lung cancer patients at an early stage is crucial for improving the outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs for detection of early stage lung cancer, capable of discriminating lung cancer patients from those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy volunteers.
RESULTS: We identified 7 microRNAs separating lung cancer patients from controls. By using RT-qPCR, we validated 6 microRNAs (miR-429, miR-205, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-125b and miR-34b) with a significantly higher abundance in serum from NSCLC patients. Furthermore, the 6 miRNAs were validated in a different dataset, revealing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 for stage I-IV and 0.88 for stage I/II.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We profiled the expression of 754 unique microRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays, and analyzed serum from 38 patients with NSCLC, 16 patients suffering from COPD and 16 healthy volunteers from Norway, to explore their potential as diagnostic biomarkers. For validation, we analyzed serum collected from high-risk individuals enrolled in the Valencia branch of the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program screening trial (n=107) in addition to 51 lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the accessibility and stability of circulating miRNAs, these 6 microRNAs are promising biomarkers as a supplement in future screening studies.

PMID: 27191990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - 13 min 30 sek siden
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A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 14;7(24):37250-37259

Authors: Halvorsen AR, Bjaanæs M, LeBlanc M, Holm AM, Bolstad N, Rubio L, Peñalver JC, Cervera J, Mojarrieta JC, López-Guerrero JA, Brustugun OT, Helland Å

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosis, predication and prognostication of diseases. Lung cancer is the cancer disease accountable for most cancer deaths, largely due to being diagnosed at late stages. Therefore, diagnosing lung cancer patients at an early stage is crucial for improving the outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs for detection of early stage lung cancer, capable of discriminating lung cancer patients from those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy volunteers.
RESULTS: We identified 7 microRNAs separating lung cancer patients from controls. By using RT-qPCR, we validated 6 microRNAs (miR-429, miR-205, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-125b and miR-34b) with a significantly higher abundance in serum from NSCLC patients. Furthermore, the 6 miRNAs were validated in a different dataset, revealing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 for stage I-IV and 0.88 for stage I/II.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We profiled the expression of 754 unique microRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays, and analyzed serum from 38 patients with NSCLC, 16 patients suffering from COPD and 16 healthy volunteers from Norway, to explore their potential as diagnostic biomarkers. For validation, we analyzed serum collected from high-risk individuals enrolled in the Valencia branch of the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program screening trial (n=107) in addition to 51 lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the accessibility and stability of circulating miRNAs, these 6 microRNAs are promising biomarkers as a supplement in future screening studies.

PMID: 27191990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Related Articles

A unique set of 6 circulating microRNAs for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 14;7(24):37250-37259

Authors: Halvorsen AR, Bjaanæs M, LeBlanc M, Holm AM, Bolstad N, Rubio L, Peñalver JC, Cervera J, Mojarrieta JC, López-Guerrero JA, Brustugun OT, Helland Å

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs are promising biomarkers for diagnosis, predication and prognostication of diseases. Lung cancer is the cancer disease accountable for most cancer deaths, largely due to being diagnosed at late stages. Therefore, diagnosing lung cancer patients at an early stage is crucial for improving the outcome. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs for detection of early stage lung cancer, capable of discriminating lung cancer patients from those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy volunteers.
RESULTS: We identified 7 microRNAs separating lung cancer patients from controls. By using RT-qPCR, we validated 6 microRNAs (miR-429, miR-205, miR-200b, miR-203, miR-125b and miR-34b) with a significantly higher abundance in serum from NSCLC patients. Furthermore, the 6 miRNAs were validated in a different dataset, revealing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 for stage I-IV and 0.88 for stage I/II.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We profiled the expression of 754 unique microRNAs by TaqMan Low Density Arrays, and analyzed serum from 38 patients with NSCLC, 16 patients suffering from COPD and 16 healthy volunteers from Norway, to explore their potential as diagnostic biomarkers. For validation, we analyzed serum collected from high-risk individuals enrolled in the Valencia branch of the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program screening trial (n=107) in addition to 51 lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the accessibility and stability of circulating miRNAs, these 6 microRNAs are promising biomarkers as a supplement in future screening studies.

PMID: 27191990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Molecular Determinants of Response to Anti-Programmed Cell Death (PD)-1 and Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand (PD-L)-Ligand 1 Blockade in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Profiled With Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tor, 01/18/2018 - 06:00
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Molecular Determinants of Response to Anti-Programmed Cell Death (PD)-1 and Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand (PD-L)-Ligand 1 Blockade in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Profiled With Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan 16;:JCO2017753384

Authors: Rizvi H, Sanchez-Vega F, La K, Chatila W, Jonsson P, Halpenny D, Plodkowski A, Long N, Sauter JL, Rekhtman N, Hollmann T, Schalper KA, Gainor JF, Shen R, Ni A, Arbour KC, Merghoub T, Wolchok J, Snyder A, Chaft JE, Kris MG, Rudin CM, Socci ND, Berger MF, Taylor BS, Zehir A, Solit DB, Arcila ME, Ladanyi M, Riely GJ, Schultz N, Hellmann MD

Abstract
Purpose Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is characterized by durable responses and improved survival in a subset of patients. Clinically available tools to optimize use of ICIs and understand the molecular determinants of response are needed. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly routine, but its role in identifying predictors of response to ICIs is not known. Methods Detailed clinical annotation and response data were collected for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with anti-programmed death-1 or anti-programmed death-ligand 1 [anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1] therapy and profiled by targeted NGS (MSK-IMPACT; n = 240). Efficacy was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, and durable clinical benefit (DCB) was defined as partial response/stable disease that lasted > 6 months. Tumor mutation burden (TMB), fraction of copy number-altered genome, and gene alterations were compared among patients with DCB and no durable benefit (NDB). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for 49 patients to compare quantification of TMB by targeted NGS versus WES. Results Estimates of TMB by targeted NGS correlated well with WES (ρ = 0.86; P < .001). TMB was greater in patients with DCB than with NDB ( P = .006). DCB was more common, and progression-free survival was longer in patients at increasing thresholds above versus below the 50th percentile of TMB (38.6% v 25.1%; P < .001; hazard ratio, 1.38; P = .024). The fraction of copy number-altered genome was highest in those with NDB. Variants in EGFR and STK11 associated with a lack of benefit. TMB and PD-L1 expression were independent variables, and a composite of TMB plus PD-L1 further enriched for benefit to ICIs. Conclusion Targeted NGS accurately estimates TMB and elevated TMB further improved likelihood of benefit to ICIs. TMB did not correlate with PD-L1 expression; both variables had similar predictive capacity. The incorporation of both TMB and PD-L1 expression into multivariable predictive models should result in greater predictive power.

PMID: 29337640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tor, 01/18/2018 - 06:00
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Atezolizumab versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (OAK): a phase 3, open-label, multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Lancet. 2017 01 21;389(10066):255-265

Authors: Rittmeyer A, Barlesi F, Waterkamp D, Park K, Ciardiello F, von Pawel J, Gadgeel SM, Hida T, Kowalski DM, Dols MC, Cortinovis DL, Leach J, Polikoff J, Barrios C, Kabbinavar F, Frontera OA, De Marinis F, Turna H, Lee JS, Ballinger M, Kowanetz M, He P, Chen DS, Sandler A, Gandara DR, OAK Study Group

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Atezolizumab is a humanised antiprogrammed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD-L1 and programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-L1 and B7-1 interactions, reinvigorating anticancer immunity. We assessed its efficacy and safety versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial (OAK) in 194 academic or community oncology centres in 31 countries. We enrolled patients who had squamous or non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, were 18 years or older, had measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients had received one to two previous cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens (one or more platinum based combination therapies) for stage IIIB or IV non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with a history of autoimmune disease and those who had received previous treatments with docetaxel, CD137 agonists, anti-CTLA4, or therapies targeting the PD-L1 and PD-1 pathway were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to intravenously receive either atezolizumab 1200 mg or docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks by permuted block randomisation (block size of eight) via an interactive voice or web response system. Coprimary endpoints were overall survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and PD-L1-expression population TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 (≥1% PD-L1 on tumour cells or tumour-infiltrating immune cells). The primary efficacy analysis was done in the first 850 of 1225 enrolled patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02008227.
FINDINGS: Between March 11, 2014, and April 29, 2015, 1225 patients were recruited. In the primary population, 425 patients were randomly assigned to receive atezolizumab and 425 patients were assigned to receive docetaxel. Overall survival was significantly longer with atezolizumab in the ITT and PD-L1-expression populations. In the ITT population, overall survival was improved with atezolizumab compared with docetaxel (median overall survival was 13·8 months [95% CI 11·8-15·7] vs 9·6 months [8·6-11·2]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·73 [95% CI 0·62-0·87], p=0·0003). Overall survival in the TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 population was improved with atezolizumab (n=241) compared with docetaxel (n=222; median overall survival was 15·7 months [95% CI 12·6-18·0] with atezolizumab vs 10·3 months [8·8-12·0] with docetaxel; HR 0·74 [95% CI 0·58-0·93]; p=0·0102). Patients in the PD-L1 low or undetectable subgroup (TC0 and IC0) also had improved survival with atezolizumab (median overall survival 12·6 months vs 8·9 months; HR 0·75 [95% CI 0·59-0·96]). Overall survival improvement was similar in patients with squamous (HR 0·73 [95% CI 0·54-0·98]; n=112 in the atezolizumab group and n=110 in the docetaxel group) or non-squamous (0·73 [0·60-0·89]; n=313 and n=315) histology. Fewer patients had treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events with atezolizumab (90 [15%] of 609 patients) versus docetaxel (247 [43%] of 578 patients). One treatment-related death from a respiratory tract infection was reported in the docetaxel group.
INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, OAK is the first randomised phase 3 study to report results of a PD-L1-targeted therapy, with atezolizumab treatment resulting in a clinically relevant improvement of overall survival versus docetaxel in previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer, regardless of PD-L1 expression or histology, with a favourable safety profile.
FUNDING: F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Genentech, Inc.

PMID: 27979383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - ons, 01/17/2018 - 05:30
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Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1999

Authors: Reck M, Rabe KF

PMID: 29327882 [PubMed - in process]

Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - ons, 01/17/2018 - 05:30
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Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1998-1999

Authors: Sohal SS, Walters EH

PMID: 29327881 [PubMed - in process]

Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - ons, 01/17/2018 - 05:30
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Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1998

Authors: Ren C, Han C, Wang D

PMID: 29327880 [PubMed - in process]

Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - ons, 01/17/2018 - 05:30
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Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 16;377(20):1997-1998

Authors: Kwon HW, Ham SY, Shin SW

PMID: 29327879 [PubMed - in process]

Osimertinib as First-Line Treatment in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - ons, 01/17/2018 - 05:30
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Osimertinib as First-Line Treatment in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 01 11;378(2):192-193

Authors: Popat S

PMID: 29320658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Targeted Therapy for Advanced Solid Tumors on the Basis of Molecular Profiles: Results From MyPathway, an Open-Label, Phase IIa Multiple Basket Study.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - lør, 01/13/2018 - 03:30
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Targeted Therapy for Advanced Solid Tumors on the Basis of Molecular Profiles: Results From MyPathway, an Open-Label, Phase IIa Multiple Basket Study.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan 10;:JCO2017753780

Authors: Hainsworth JD, Meric-Bernstam F, Swanton C, Hurwitz H, Spigel DR, Sweeney C, Burris H, Bose R, Yoo B, Stein A, Beattie M, Kurzrock R

Abstract
Purpose Detection of specific molecular alterations in tumors guides the selection of effective targeted treatment of patients with several types of cancer. These molecular alterations may occur in other tumor types for which the efficacy of targeted therapy remains unclear. The MyPathway study evaluates the efficacy and safety of selected targeted therapies in tumor types that harbor relevant genetic alterations but are outside of current labeling for these treatments. Methods MyPathway ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02091141) is a multicenter, nonrandomized, phase IIa multiple basket study. Patients with advanced refractory solid tumors harboring molecular alterations in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, or the Hedgehog pathway are treated with pertuzumab plus trastuzumab, erlotinib, vemurafenib, or vismodegib, respectively. The primary end point is investigator-assessed objective response rate within each tumor-pathway cohort. Results Between April 1, 2014 and November 1, 2016, 251 patients with 35 different tumor types received study treatment. The efficacy population contains 230 treated patients who were evaluated for response or discontinued treatment before evaluation. Fifty-two patients (23%) with 14 different tumor types had objective responses (complete, n = 4; partial, n = 48). Tumor-pathway cohorts with notable objective response rates included human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-amplified/overexpressing colorectal (38% [14 of 37]; 95% CI, 23% to 55%) and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (43% [six of 14]; 95% CI, 18% to 71%). Conclusion The four currently approved targeted therapy regimens in the MyPathway study produced meaningful responses when administered without chemotherapy in several refractory solid tumor types not currently labeled for these agents.

PMID: 29320312 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J-ALEX): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tor, 01/11/2018 - 02:30
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Alectinib versus crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (J-ALEX): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

Lancet. 2017 07 01;390(10089):29-39

Authors: Hida T, Nokihara H, Kondo M, Kim YH, Azuma K, Seto T, Takiguchi Y, Nishio M, Yoshioka H, Imamura F, Hotta K, Watanabe S, Goto K, Satouchi M, Kozuki T, Shukuya T, Nakagawa K, Mitsudomi T, Yamamoto N, Asakawa T, Asabe R, Tanaka T, Tamura T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alectinib, a potent, highly selective, CNS-active inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), showed promising efficacy and tolerability in the single-arm phase 1/2 AF-001JP trial in Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Given those promising results, we did a phase 3 trial to directly compare the efficacy and safety of alectinib and crizotinib.
METHODS: J-ALEX was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that recruited ALK inhibitor-naive Japanese patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer, who were chemotherapy-naive or had received one previous chemotherapy regimen, from 41 study sites in Japan. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system using a permuted-block method stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, treatment line, and disease stage to receive oral alectinib 300 mg twice daily or crizotinib 250 mg twice daily until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, death, or withdrawal. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival assessed by an independent review facility. The efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population, and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of the study drug. The study is ongoing and patient recruitment is closed. This study is registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (number JapicCTI-132316).
FINDINGS: Between Nov 18, 2013, and Aug 4, 2015, 207 patients were recruited and assigned to the alectinib (n=103) or crizotinib (n=104) groups. At data cutoff for the second interim analysis, 24 patients in the alectinib group had discontinued treatment compared with 61 in the crizotinib group, mostly due to lack of efficacy or adverse events. At the second interim analysis (data cutoff date Dec 3, 2015), an independent data monitoring committee determined that the primary endpoint of the study had been met (hazard ratio 0·34 [99·7% CI 0·17-0·71], stratified log-rank p<0·0001) and recommended an immediate release of the data. Median progression-free survival had not yet been reached with alectinib (95% CI 20·3-not estimated) and was 10·2 months (8·2-12·0) with crizotinib. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred at a greater frequency with crizotinib (54 [52%] of 104) than alectinib (27 [26%] of 103). Dose interruptions due to adverse events were also more prevalent with crizotinib (77 [74%] of 104) than with alectinib (30 [29%] of 103), and more patients receiving crizotinib (21 [20%]) than alectinib (nine [9%]) discontinued the study drug because of an adverse event. No adverse events with a fatal outcome occurred in either treatment group.
INTERPRETATION: These results provide the first head-to-head comparison of alectinib and crizotinib and have the potential to change the standard of care for the first-line treatment of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. The dose of alectinib (300 mg twice daily) used in this study is lower than the approved dose in countries other than Japan; however, this limitation is being addressed in the ongoing ALEX study.
FUNDING: Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd.

PMID: 28501140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bayesian Adaptive Randomization Trial of Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated Photon Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tir, 01/09/2018 - 01:30
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Bayesian Adaptive Randomization Trial of Passive Scattering Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated Photon Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jan 02;:JCO2017740720

Authors: Liao Z, Lee JJ, Komaki R, Gomez DR, O'Reilly MS, Fossella FV, Blumenschein GR, Heymach JV, Vaporciyan AA, Swisher SG, Allen PK, Choi NC, DeLaney TF, Hahn SM, Cox JD, Lu CS, Mohan R

Abstract
Purpose This randomized trial compared outcomes of passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) versus intensity-modulated (photon) radiotherapy (IMRT), both with concurrent chemotherapy, for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We hypothesized that PSPT exposes less lung tissue to radiation than IMRT and thereby reduces toxicity without compromising tumor control. The primary end points were grade ≥ 3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) and local failure (LF). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had stage IIB to IIIB NSCLC (or stage IV NSCLC with a single brain metastasis or recurrent lung or mediastinal disease after surgery) who were candidates for concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Pairs of treatment plans for IMRT and PSPT were created for each patient. Patients were eligible for random assignment only if both plans satisfied the same prespecified dose-volume constraints for at-risk organs at the same tumor dose. Results Compared with IMRT (n = 92), PSPT (n = 57) exposed less lung tissue to doses of 5 to 10 Gy(RBE), which is the absorbed Gy dose multiplied by the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) factor for protons; exposed more lung tissue was exposed to $ 20 Gy(RBE), but exposed less heart tissue at all dose levels between 5 and 80 Gy(RBE). The grade $ 3 RP rate for all patients was 8.1% (IMRT, 6.5%; PSPT, 10.5%); corresponding LF rates were 10.7% (all), 10.9% (IMRT), and 10.5% (PSPT). The posterior probability of IMRT being better than PSPT was 0.54. Exploratory analysis showed that the RP and LF rates at 12 months for patients enrolled before versus after the trial midpoint were 21.1% (before) versus 18.2% (after) for the IMRT group (P = .047) and 31.0% (before) versus 13.1% (after) for the PSPT group (P = .027). Conclusion PSPT did not improve dose-volume indices for lung but did for heart. No benefit was noted in RP or LF after PSPT. Improvements in both end points were observed over the course of the trial.

PMID: 29293386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Norske artikler - lør, 01/06/2018 - 10:30
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Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Ann Oncol. 2016 Jul;27(7):1291-8

Authors: Chatterjee M, Turner DC, Felip E, Lena H, Cappuzzo F, Horn L, Garon EB, Hui R, Arkenau HT, Gubens MA, Hellmann MD, Dong D, Li C, Mayawala K, Freshwater T, Ahamadi M, Stone J, Lubiniecki GM, Zhang J, Im E, De Alwis DP, Kondic AG, Fløtten Ø

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the phase I KEYNOTE-001 study, pembrolizumab demonstrated durable antitumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to characterize the relationship between pembrolizumab dose, exposure, and response to define an effective dose for these patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W) (n = 55), 10 mg/kg Q3W (n = 238), or 10 mg/kg Q2W (n = 156). Response (RECIST v1.1) was assessed every 9 weeks. The relationship between the estimated pembrolizumab area under the concentration-time curve at steady state over 6 weeks (AUCss-6weeks) and the longitudinal change in tumor size (sum of longest diameters) was analyzed by regression and non-linear mixed effects modeling. This model was simultaneously fit to all tumor size data, then used to simulate response rates, normalizing the trial data across dose for prognostic covariates (tumor PD-L1 expression and EGFR mutation status). The exposure-safety relationship was assessed by logistic regression of pembrolizumab AUCss-6weeks versus occurrence of adverse events (AEs) of interest based on their immune etiology.
RESULTS: Overall response rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7%-28%] at 2 mg/kg Q3W, 25% (18%-33%) at 10 mg/kg Q3W, and 21% (95% CI 14%-30%) at 10 mg/kg Q2W. Regression analyses of percentage change from baseline in tumor size versus AUCss-6weeks indicated a flat relationship (regression slope P > 0.05). Simulations showed the exposure-response relationship to be similarly flat, thus indicating that the lowest evaluated dose of 2 mg/kg Q3W to likely be at or near the efficacy plateau. Exposure-safety analysis showed the AE incidence to be similar among the clinically tested doses.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant exposure dependency on efficacy or safety was identified for pembrolizumab across doses of 2-10 mg/kg. These results support the use of a 2 mg/kg Q3W dosage in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV REGISTRY: NCT01295827.

PMID: 27117531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - lør, 01/06/2018 - 10:30
Related Articles

Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Ann Oncol. 2016 Jul;27(7):1291-8

Authors: Chatterjee M, Turner DC, Felip E, Lena H, Cappuzzo F, Horn L, Garon EB, Hui R, Arkenau HT, Gubens MA, Hellmann MD, Dong D, Li C, Mayawala K, Freshwater T, Ahamadi M, Stone J, Lubiniecki GM, Zhang J, Im E, De Alwis DP, Kondic AG, Fløtten Ø

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the phase I KEYNOTE-001 study, pembrolizumab demonstrated durable antitumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to characterize the relationship between pembrolizumab dose, exposure, and response to define an effective dose for these patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W) (n = 55), 10 mg/kg Q3W (n = 238), or 10 mg/kg Q2W (n = 156). Response (RECIST v1.1) was assessed every 9 weeks. The relationship between the estimated pembrolizumab area under the concentration-time curve at steady state over 6 weeks (AUCss-6weeks) and the longitudinal change in tumor size (sum of longest diameters) was analyzed by regression and non-linear mixed effects modeling. This model was simultaneously fit to all tumor size data, then used to simulate response rates, normalizing the trial data across dose for prognostic covariates (tumor PD-L1 expression and EGFR mutation status). The exposure-safety relationship was assessed by logistic regression of pembrolizumab AUCss-6weeks versus occurrence of adverse events (AEs) of interest based on their immune etiology.
RESULTS: Overall response rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7%-28%] at 2 mg/kg Q3W, 25% (18%-33%) at 10 mg/kg Q3W, and 21% (95% CI 14%-30%) at 10 mg/kg Q2W. Regression analyses of percentage change from baseline in tumor size versus AUCss-6weeks indicated a flat relationship (regression slope P > 0.05). Simulations showed the exposure-response relationship to be similarly flat, thus indicating that the lowest evaluated dose of 2 mg/kg Q3W to likely be at or near the efficacy plateau. Exposure-safety analysis showed the AE incidence to be similar among the clinically tested doses.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant exposure dependency on efficacy or safety was identified for pembrolizumab across doses of 2-10 mg/kg. These results support the use of a 2 mg/kg Q3W dosage in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV REGISTRY: NCT01295827.

PMID: 27117531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Related Articles

Systematic evaluation of pembrolizumab dosing in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Ann Oncol. 2016 Jul;27(7):1291-8

Authors: Chatterjee M, Turner DC, Felip E, Lena H, Cappuzzo F, Horn L, Garon EB, Hui R, Arkenau HT, Gubens MA, Hellmann MD, Dong D, Li C, Mayawala K, Freshwater T, Ahamadi M, Stone J, Lubiniecki GM, Zhang J, Im E, De Alwis DP, Kondic AG, Fløtten Ø

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the phase I KEYNOTE-001 study, pembrolizumab demonstrated durable antitumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to characterize the relationship between pembrolizumab dose, exposure, and response to define an effective dose for these patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W) (n = 55), 10 mg/kg Q3W (n = 238), or 10 mg/kg Q2W (n = 156). Response (RECIST v1.1) was assessed every 9 weeks. The relationship between the estimated pembrolizumab area under the concentration-time curve at steady state over 6 weeks (AUCss-6weeks) and the longitudinal change in tumor size (sum of longest diameters) was analyzed by regression and non-linear mixed effects modeling. This model was simultaneously fit to all tumor size data, then used to simulate response rates, normalizing the trial data across dose for prognostic covariates (tumor PD-L1 expression and EGFR mutation status). The exposure-safety relationship was assessed by logistic regression of pembrolizumab AUCss-6weeks versus occurrence of adverse events (AEs) of interest based on their immune etiology.
RESULTS: Overall response rates were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7%-28%] at 2 mg/kg Q3W, 25% (18%-33%) at 10 mg/kg Q3W, and 21% (95% CI 14%-30%) at 10 mg/kg Q2W. Regression analyses of percentage change from baseline in tumor size versus AUCss-6weeks indicated a flat relationship (regression slope P > 0.05). Simulations showed the exposure-response relationship to be similarly flat, thus indicating that the lowest evaluated dose of 2 mg/kg Q3W to likely be at or near the efficacy plateau. Exposure-safety analysis showed the AE incidence to be similar among the clinically tested doses.
CONCLUSIONS: No significant exposure dependency on efficacy or safety was identified for pembrolizumab across doses of 2-10 mg/kg. These results support the use of a 2 mg/kg Q3W dosage in patients with previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
CLINICALTRIALSGOV REGISTRY: NCT01295827.

PMID: 27117531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Smoking, B Vitamins, and Lung Cancer: The Chicken or the Egg Causality Dilemma.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tir, 01/02/2018 - 22:30
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Smoking, B Vitamins, and Lung Cancer: The Chicken or the Egg Causality Dilemma.

J Clin Oncol. 2017 Dec 28;:JCO2017759472

Authors: Obeid R, Pietrzik K

PMID: 29283790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antineoplastic Treatment of Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Treatment, Survival, and Spending (2000 to 2011).

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tor, 12/28/2017 - 20:00
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Antineoplastic Treatment of Advanced-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Treatment, Survival, and Spending (2000 to 2011).

J Clin Oncol. 2017 Feb 10;35(5):529-535

Authors: Bradley CJ, Yabroff KR, Mariotto AB, Zeruto C, Tran Q, Warren JL

Abstract
Purpose Multiple agents for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been approved in the past decade, but little is known about their use and associated spending and survival. Methods We used SEER-Medicare data for elderly patients with a new diagnosis of advanced-stage NSCLC and were treated with antineoplastic agents between 2000 and 2011 (N = 22,163). We estimated the adjusted percentage of patients who received each agent, days while on treatment, survival, and spending in the 12 months after diagnosis. Results During the 12-year study period, a marked shift in treatment occurred along with a rapid adoption of pemetrexed (39.2%), erlotinib (20.3%), and bevacizumab (18.9%) and a decline in paclitaxel (38.7%), gemcitabine (17.0%), and vinorelbine (5.7%; all P < .05). The average total days on therapy increased by 5 days (from 103 to 108 days). Patients who received bevacizumab, erlotinib, or pemetrexed had the longest treatment durations on average (approximately 146 days v 75 days for those who did not receive these agents). Approximately 44% of patients received antineoplastic agents in the last 30 days of life throughout the study period. Acute inpatient spending declined (from $29,376 to $23,731), whereas outpatient spending increased 23% (from $37,931 to $46,642). Median survival gains of 1.5 months were observed. Conclusion Considerable shifts in the treatment of advanced-stage NSCLC occurred along with modest gains in survival and total Medicare spending. More precise outcome information is needed to inform value-based treatment decisions for advanced-stage NSCLC.

PMID: 28045621 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phase III Randomized Trial of Ipilimumab Plus Etoposide and Platinum Versus Placebo Plus Etoposide and Platinum in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - tor, 12/28/2017 - 20:00
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Phase III Randomized Trial of Ipilimumab Plus Etoposide and Platinum Versus Placebo Plus Etoposide and Platinum in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2016 Nov 01;34(31):3740-3748

Authors: Reck M, Luft A, Szczesna A, Havel L, Kim SW, Akerley W, Pietanza MC, Wu YL, Zielinski C, Thomas M, Felip E, Gold K, Horn L, Aerts J, Nakagawa K, Lorigan P, Pieters A, Kong Sanchez T, Fairchild J, Spigel D

Abstract
Purpose Patients with extensive-stage disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) have poor survival outcomes despite first-line chemotherapy with etoposide and platinum. This randomized, double-blind phase III study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab or placebo plus etoposide and platinum in patients with newly diagnosed extensive-stage disease SCLC. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to receive chemotherapy with etoposide and platinum (cisplatin or carboplatin) plus ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for a total of four doses each in a phased induction schedule (chemotherapy in cycles one to four; ipilimumab or placebo beginning in cycle three up to cycle six), followed by ipilimumab or placebo maintenance every 12 weeks. Primary end point was overall survival (OS) among patients receiving at least one dose of blinded study therapy. Results Of 1,132 patients randomly assigned, 954 received at least one dose of study therapy (chemotherapy plus ipilimumab, n = 478; chemotherapy plus placebo, n = 476). Median OS was 11.0 months for chemotherapy plus ipilimumab versus 10.9 months for chemotherapy plus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.09; P = .3775). Median progression-free survival was 4.6 months for chemotherapy plus ipilimumab versus 4.4 months for chemotherapy plus placebo (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Rates and severity of treatment-related adverse events were similar between arms, except for diarrhea, rash, and colitis, which were more frequent with chemotherapy plus ipilimumab. Rate of treatment-related discontinuation was higher with chemotherapy plus ipilimumab (18% v 2% with chemotherapy plus placebo). Five treatment-related deaths occurred with chemotherapy plus ipilimumab and two with chemotherapy plus placebo. Conclusion Addition of ipilimumab to chemotherapy did not prolong OS versus chemotherapy alone in patients with newly diagnosed extensive-stage disease SCLC. No new or unexpected adverse events were observed with chemotherapy plus ipilimumab. Several ongoing studies are evaluating ipilimumab in combination with programmed death-1 inhibitors in SCLC.

PMID: 27458307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Trajectory of sleep disturbances in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: a prospective study.

Norske artikler - tor, 12/28/2017 - 10:30
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Trajectory of sleep disturbances in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: a prospective study.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2017 Aug 01;25(2):285-291

Authors: Halle IH, Westgaard TK, Wahba A, Oksholm T, Rustøen T, Gjeilo KH

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Patients with lung cancer report sleep difficulties to be frequent and bothersome symptoms. This study describes the trajectory of sleep from before and up to 12 months after surgery for lung cancer. Further, it investigates possible associations between sleep disturbance, demographic and clinical characteristics before surgery.
METHODS: This study is part of a longitudinal multicentre study. Sleep disturbance was measured by The General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS) that investigates frequencies of sleep difficulties (21 items) and a total sum score ≥43 indicates a clinically meaningful level of sleep disturbance (score range 0-147). Linear mixed models were used to study changes in sleep from baseline to 1, 5, 9 and 12 months after surgery.
RESULTS: The percentage of patients (n = 264) reporting sleep disturbances was 60.9% at baseline, 68.5% at Month 1, 55.4% at Month 5, 51.3% at Month 9 and 49.7% at Month 12. The increase to and decrease from Month 1 was the only significant alteration in the occurrence of sleep disturbance. The patients reported most problems within the subscales sleep quantity, early awakenings and sleep quality. Factors associated with sleep disturbance were lower age, use of pain medication and psychotropic medication and higher comorbidity score.
CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer patients sleep poorly, before as well as after surgery. There is a need to address sleeping disturbance routinely in clinical practice and screening for sleeping problems is indicated. Further studies are warranted concerning factors that contribute to sleep disturbance and how they best can be treated.

PMID: 28486702 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]