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Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Norske artikler - 8 min 42 sek siden
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Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Adv Radiat Oncol. 2018 Apr-Jun;3(2):130-138

Authors: Eide HA, Knudtsen IS, Sandhu V, Løndalen AM, Halvorsen AR, Abravan A, Kure EH, Bogsrud TV, Brustugun OT, Kyte JA, Malinen E, Helland Å

Abstract
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Blood was sampled at 4 different time points: prior to treatment, midtherapy, at the end of therapy, and 6 to 8 weeks after the start of treatment. The serum concentrations of 48 cytokines and 9 matrix metalloproteinases were measured with multiplex immunoassays. A subset of patients was examined by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography before, during, and after radiation therapy. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the primary lung tumor, whole-body metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were calculated, and correlations between the PET parameters and cytokines were investigated.
Results: The SUVmax decreased from baseline through midtherapy to posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (P = .018). The serum levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 23, CCL24, C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, and interleukin-8 (C-X-C motif ligand [CXCL]8) were significantly correlated to SUVmax, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis before, during, and after radiation therapy. CXCL2 (P = .030) and CXCL6 (P = .010) decreased after the start of therapy and changed significantly across the sample time points. Serum concentrations of CCL15 (P = .031), CXCL2 (P = .028), and interleukin-6 (P = .007) were positively correlated to the irradiated volume during the second week of treatment.
Conclusions: Cytokine serum levels vary and correlate with metabolic tumor burden in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

PMID: 29904737 [PubMed]

Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - 8 min 45 sek siden
Related Articles

Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Adv Radiat Oncol. 2018 Apr-Jun;3(2):130-138

Authors: Eide HA, Knudtsen IS, Sandhu V, Løndalen AM, Halvorsen AR, Abravan A, Kure EH, Bogsrud TV, Brustugun OT, Kyte JA, Malinen E, Helland Å

Abstract
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Blood was sampled at 4 different time points: prior to treatment, midtherapy, at the end of therapy, and 6 to 8 weeks after the start of treatment. The serum concentrations of 48 cytokines and 9 matrix metalloproteinases were measured with multiplex immunoassays. A subset of patients was examined by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography before, during, and after radiation therapy. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the primary lung tumor, whole-body metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were calculated, and correlations between the PET parameters and cytokines were investigated.
Results: The SUVmax decreased from baseline through midtherapy to posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (P = .018). The serum levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 23, CCL24, C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, and interleukin-8 (C-X-C motif ligand [CXCL]8) were significantly correlated to SUVmax, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis before, during, and after radiation therapy. CXCL2 (P = .030) and CXCL6 (P = .010) decreased after the start of therapy and changed significantly across the sample time points. Serum concentrations of CCL15 (P = .031), CXCL2 (P = .028), and interleukin-6 (P = .007) were positively correlated to the irradiated volume during the second week of treatment.
Conclusions: Cytokine serum levels vary and correlate with metabolic tumor burden in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

PMID: 29904737 [PubMed]

Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Related Articles

Serum cytokine profiles and metabolic tumor burden in patients with non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

Adv Radiat Oncol. 2018 Apr-Jun;3(2):130-138

Authors: Eide HA, Knudtsen IS, Sandhu V, Løndalen AM, Halvorsen AR, Abravan A, Kure EH, Bogsrud TV, Brustugun OT, Kyte JA, Malinen E, Helland Å

Abstract
Purpose: Radiation therapy effectively kills cancer cells and elicits local effects in the irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of cytokines in the serum of patients with lung cancer undergoing radiation therapy and to identify associations with metabolic tumor burden as determined by 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods and materials: Forty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were included in a phase 2 clinical trial and randomized between fractionated thoracic radiation therapy alone or concurrent with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor. Blood was sampled at 4 different time points: prior to treatment, midtherapy, at the end of therapy, and 6 to 8 weeks after the start of treatment. The serum concentrations of 48 cytokines and 9 matrix metalloproteinases were measured with multiplex immunoassays. A subset of patients was examined by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography before, during, and after radiation therapy. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the primary lung tumor, whole-body metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were calculated, and correlations between the PET parameters and cytokines were investigated.
Results: The SUVmax decreased from baseline through midtherapy to posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography (P = .018). The serum levels of C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 23, CCL24, C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, and interleukin-8 (C-X-C motif ligand [CXCL]8) were significantly correlated to SUVmax, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis before, during, and after radiation therapy. CXCL2 (P = .030) and CXCL6 (P = .010) decreased after the start of therapy and changed significantly across the sample time points. Serum concentrations of CCL15 (P = .031), CXCL2 (P = .028), and interleukin-6 (P = .007) were positively correlated to the irradiated volume during the second week of treatment.
Conclusions: Cytokine serum levels vary and correlate with metabolic tumor burden in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer undergoing palliative thoracic radiation therapy.

PMID: 29904737 [PubMed]

Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Temozolomide in Combination With Either Veliparib or Placebo in Patients With Relapsed-Sensitive or Refractory Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - 20 timer 38 min siden
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Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase II Study of Temozolomide in Combination With Either Veliparib or Placebo in Patients With Relapsed-Sensitive or Refractory Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 15;:JCO2018777672

Authors: Pietanza MC, Waqar SN, Krug LM, Dowlati A, Hann CL, Chiappori A, Owonikoko TK, Woo KM, Cardnell RJ, Fujimoto J, Long L, Diao L, Wang J, Bensman Y, Hurtado B, de Groot P, Sulman EP, Wistuba II, Chen A, Fleisher M, Heymach JV, Kris MG, Rudin CM, Byers LA

Abstract
Purpose Both temozolomide (TMZ) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are active in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This phase II, randomized, double-blind study evaluated whether addition of the PARP inhibitor veliparib to TMZ improves 4-month progression-free survival (PFS). Patients and Methods A total of 104 patients with recurrent SCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to oral veliparib or placebo 40 mg twice daily, days 1 to 7, and oral TMZ 150 to 200 mg/m2/day, days 1 to 5, of a 28-day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Response was determined by imaging at weeks 4 and 8, and every 8 weeks thereafter. Improvement in PFS at 4 months was the primary end point. Secondary objectives included overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety and tolerability of veliparib with TMZ. Exploratory objectives included PARP-1 and SLFN11 immunohistochemical expression, MGMT promoter methylation, and circulating tumor cell quantification. Results No significant difference in 4-month PFS was noted between TMZ/veliparib (36%) and TMZ/placebo (27%; P = .19); median OS was also not improved significantly with TMZ/veliparib (8.2 months; 95% CI, 6.4 to 12.2 months; v 7.0 months; 95% CI, 5.3 to 9.5 months; P = .50). However, ORR was significantly higher in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib compared with TMZ/placebo (39% v 14%; P = .016). Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia more commonly occurred with TMZ/veliparib: 50% versus 9% and 31% versus 7%, respectively. Significantly prolonged PFS (5.7 v 3.6 months; P = .009) and OS (12.2 v 7.5 months; P = .014) were observed in patients with SLFN11-positive tumors treated with TMZ/veliparib. Conclusion Four-month PFS and median OS did not differ between the two arms, whereas a significant improvement in ORR was observed with TMZ/veliparib. SLFN11 expression was associated with improved PFS and OS in patients receiving TMZ/veliparib, suggesting a promising biomarker of PARP-inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC.

PMID: 29906251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Norske artikler - lør, 06/16/2018 - 10:00
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Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Hum Pathol. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Rakaee M, Kilvaer TK, Dalen SM, Richardsen E, Paulsen EE, Hald SM, Al-Saad S, Andersen S, Donnem T, Bremnes RM, Busund LT

Abstract
The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) positively impacts the outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Most previous studies have assessed TILs using different immunohistochemical assays. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a histopathological scoring model for the assessment of TILs in whole tissue hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section slides of NSCLC patients and to evaluate the model in an immunoscore setting. Therefore, TIL was evaluated manually on H&E slides from 537 surgical specimens of primary resected stage I-III NSCLC patients. Using stromal TIL-score as a stepwise discrete variable, increasing survival was seen with rising TIL level: disease-specific survival (DSS; P=.008), overall survival (P=.036) and disease-free survival (P=.006). Subgroup analysis revealed that high stromal TILs level was associated with superior DSS (P=.047) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, but not in patients with adenocarcinoma. Multivariable analysis confirmed that high TIL levels independently predict improved prognosis for all endpoints in the overall cohort. In conclusion, high stromal TIL level is an independent favorable prognostic factor in stage I-III NSCLC patients. The comprehensive histological evaluation conducted in this study may be helpful in streamlining TIL quantification for routine clinical use in a future NSCLC-immunoscore setting.

PMID: 29885403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - lør, 06/16/2018 - 10:00
Related Articles

Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Hum Pathol. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Rakaee M, Kilvaer TK, Dalen SM, Richardsen E, Paulsen EE, Hald SM, Al-Saad S, Andersen S, Donnem T, Bremnes RM, Busund LT

Abstract
The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) positively impacts the outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Most previous studies have assessed TILs using different immunohistochemical assays. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a histopathological scoring model for the assessment of TILs in whole tissue hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section slides of NSCLC patients and to evaluate the model in an immunoscore setting. Therefore, TIL was evaluated manually on H&E slides from 537 surgical specimens of primary resected stage I-III NSCLC patients. Using stromal TIL-score as a stepwise discrete variable, increasing survival was seen with rising TIL level: disease-specific survival (DSS; P=.008), overall survival (P=.036) and disease-free survival (P=.006). Subgroup analysis revealed that high stromal TILs level was associated with superior DSS (P=.047) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, but not in patients with adenocarcinoma. Multivariable analysis confirmed that high TIL levels independently predict improved prognosis for all endpoints in the overall cohort. In conclusion, high stromal TIL level is an independent favorable prognostic factor in stage I-III NSCLC patients. The comprehensive histological evaluation conducted in this study may be helpful in streamlining TIL quantification for routine clinical use in a future NSCLC-immunoscore setting.

PMID: 29885403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Related Articles

Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using routine H&E slides predicts patient survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

Hum Pathol. 2018 Jun 06;:

Authors: Rakaee M, Kilvaer TK, Dalen SM, Richardsen E, Paulsen EE, Hald SM, Al-Saad S, Andersen S, Donnem T, Bremnes RM, Busund LT

Abstract
The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) positively impacts the outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Most previous studies have assessed TILs using different immunohistochemical assays. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a histopathological scoring model for the assessment of TILs in whole tissue hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained section slides of NSCLC patients and to evaluate the model in an immunoscore setting. Therefore, TIL was evaluated manually on H&E slides from 537 surgical specimens of primary resected stage I-III NSCLC patients. Using stromal TIL-score as a stepwise discrete variable, increasing survival was seen with rising TIL level: disease-specific survival (DSS; P=.008), overall survival (P=.036) and disease-free survival (P=.006). Subgroup analysis revealed that high stromal TILs level was associated with superior DSS (P=.047) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma, but not in patients with adenocarcinoma. Multivariable analysis confirmed that high TIL levels independently predict improved prognosis for all endpoints in the overall cohort. In conclusion, high stromal TIL level is an independent favorable prognostic factor in stage I-III NSCLC patients. The comprehensive histological evaluation conducted in this study may be helpful in streamlining TIL quantification for routine clinical use in a future NSCLC-immunoscore setting.

PMID: 29885403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/15/2018 - 21:30
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Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 31;378(22):2078-2092

Authors: Gandhi L, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Gadgeel S, Esteban E, Felip E, De Angelis F, Domine M, Clingan P, Hochmair MJ, Powell SF, Cheng SY, Bischoff HG, Peled N, Grossi F, Jennens RR, Reck M, Hui R, Garon EB, Boyer M, Rubio-Viqueira B, Novello S, Kurata T, Gray JE, Vida J, Wei Z, Yang J, Raftopoulos H, Pietanza MC, Garassino MC, KEYNOTE-189 Investigators

Abstract
BACKGROUND: First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial.
METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review.
RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-189 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02578680 .).

PMID: 29658856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/15/2018 - 21:30
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Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Lung Cancer with a High Tumor Mutational Burden.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 31;378(22):2093-2104

Authors: Hellmann MD, Ciuleanu TE, Pluzanski A, Lee JS, Otterson GA, Audigier-Valette C, Minenza E, Linardou H, Burgers S, Salman P, Borghaei H, Ramalingam SS, Brahmer J, Reck M, O'Byrne KJ, Geese WJ, Green G, Chang H, Szustakowski J, Bhagavatheeswaran P, Healey D, Fu Y, Nathan F, Paz-Ares L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase).
METHODS: We enrolled patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy. Those with a level of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of at least 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy; those with a tumor PD-L1 expression level of less than 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy. Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx assay.
RESULTS: Progression-free survival among patients with a high tumor mutational burden was significantly longer with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 42.6% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus 13.2% with chemotherapy, and the median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 13.2) versus 5.5 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.8) (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.58; 97.5% CI, 0.41 to 0.81; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 45.3% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 26.9% with chemotherapy. The benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over chemotherapy was broadly consistent within subgroups, including patients with a PD-L1 expression level of at least 1% and those with a level of less than 1%. The rate of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events was 31.2% with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 36.1% with chemotherapy. ical; CheckMate 227 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02477826 .).
CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer with first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC and a high tumor mutational burden, irrespective of PD-L1 expression level. The results validate the benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in NSCLC and the role of tumor mutational burden as a biomarker for patient selection. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceut

PMID: 29658845 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Norske artikler - søn, 06/10/2018 - 09:30
Related Articles

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Oct;8(5):759-767

Authors: Bye A, Sjøblom B, Wentzel-Larsen T, Grønberg BH, Baracos VE, Hjermstad MJ, Aass N, Bremnes RM, Fløtten Ø, Jordhøy M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cancer wasting is characterized by muscle loss and may contribute to fatigue and poor quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) and selected QoL outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis.
METHODS: Baseline data from patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and performance status 0-2 enrolled in three randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy (n = 1305) were analysed. Associations between SMI (cm2 /m2 ) and SMD (Hounsfield units) based on computed tomography-images at the third lumbar level and self-reported physical function (PF), role function (RF), global QoL, fatigue, and dyspnoea were investigated by linear regression using flexible non-linear modelling.
RESULTS: Complete data were available for 734 patients, mean age 65 years. Mean SMI was 47.7 cm2 /m2 in men (n = 420) and 39.6 cm2 /m2 in women (n = 314). Low SMI values were non-linearly associated with low PF and RF (men P = 0.016/0.020, women P = 0.004/0.012) and with low global QoL (P = 0.001) in men. Low SMI was significantly associated with high fatigue (P = 0.002) and more pain (P = 0.015), in both genders, but not with dyspnoea. All regression analyses showed poorer physical outcomes below an SMI breakpoint of about 42-45 cm2 /m2 for men and 37-40 cm2 /m2 for women. In both genders, poor PF and more dyspnoea were significantly associated with low SMD.
CONCLUSIONS: Low muscle mass in NSCLC negatively affects the patients' PF, RF, and global QoL, possibly more so in men than in women. However, muscle mass must be below a threshold value before this effect can be detected.

PMID: 28493418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - søn, 06/10/2018 - 09:30
Related Articles

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Oct;8(5):759-767

Authors: Bye A, Sjøblom B, Wentzel-Larsen T, Grønberg BH, Baracos VE, Hjermstad MJ, Aass N, Bremnes RM, Fløtten Ø, Jordhøy M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cancer wasting is characterized by muscle loss and may contribute to fatigue and poor quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) and selected QoL outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis.
METHODS: Baseline data from patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and performance status 0-2 enrolled in three randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy (n = 1305) were analysed. Associations between SMI (cm2 /m2 ) and SMD (Hounsfield units) based on computed tomography-images at the third lumbar level and self-reported physical function (PF), role function (RF), global QoL, fatigue, and dyspnoea were investigated by linear regression using flexible non-linear modelling.
RESULTS: Complete data were available for 734 patients, mean age 65 years. Mean SMI was 47.7 cm2 /m2 in men (n = 420) and 39.6 cm2 /m2 in women (n = 314). Low SMI values were non-linearly associated with low PF and RF (men P = 0.016/0.020, women P = 0.004/0.012) and with low global QoL (P = 0.001) in men. Low SMI was significantly associated with high fatigue (P = 0.002) and more pain (P = 0.015), in both genders, but not with dyspnoea. All regression analyses showed poorer physical outcomes below an SMI breakpoint of about 42-45 cm2 /m2 for men and 37-40 cm2 /m2 for women. In both genders, poor PF and more dyspnoea were significantly associated with low SMD.
CONCLUSIONS: Low muscle mass in NSCLC negatively affects the patients' PF, RF, and global QoL, possibly more so in men than in women. However, muscle mass must be below a threshold value before this effect can be detected.

PMID: 28493418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Related Articles

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Oct;8(5):759-767

Authors: Bye A, Sjøblom B, Wentzel-Larsen T, Grønberg BH, Baracos VE, Hjermstad MJ, Aass N, Bremnes RM, Fløtten Ø, Jordhøy M

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cancer wasting is characterized by muscle loss and may contribute to fatigue and poor quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) and selected QoL outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis.
METHODS: Baseline data from patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and performance status 0-2 enrolled in three randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy (n = 1305) were analysed. Associations between SMI (cm2 /m2 ) and SMD (Hounsfield units) based on computed tomography-images at the third lumbar level and self-reported physical function (PF), role function (RF), global QoL, fatigue, and dyspnoea were investigated by linear regression using flexible non-linear modelling.
RESULTS: Complete data were available for 734 patients, mean age 65 years. Mean SMI was 47.7 cm2 /m2 in men (n = 420) and 39.6 cm2 /m2 in women (n = 314). Low SMI values were non-linearly associated with low PF and RF (men P = 0.016/0.020, women P = 0.004/0.012) and with low global QoL (P = 0.001) in men. Low SMI was significantly associated with high fatigue (P = 0.002) and more pain (P = 0.015), in both genders, but not with dyspnoea. All regression analyses showed poorer physical outcomes below an SMI breakpoint of about 42-45 cm2 /m2 for men and 37-40 cm2 /m2 for women. In both genders, poor PF and more dyspnoea were significantly associated with low SMD.
CONCLUSIONS: Low muscle mass in NSCLC negatively affects the patients' PF, RF, and global QoL, possibly more so in men than in women. However, muscle mass must be below a threshold value before this effect can be detected.

PMID: 28493418 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Norske artikler - lør, 06/09/2018 - 09:30
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A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 04;8(1):8549

Authors: Skjefstad K, Johannessen C, Grindstad T, Kilvaer T, Paulsen EE, Pedersen M, Donnem T, Andersen S, Bremnes R, Richardsen E, Al-Saad S, Busund LT

Abstract
Micro RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNA cluster 143/145 has been reported in several malignancies, but their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive. This study investigates the prognostic impact of miR-143 and miR-145 in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in NSCLC tissue. Tissue from 553 primary tumors and 143 matched metastatic lymph nodes were collected and tissue microarrays were constructed. In situ hybridization was used to evaluate miR-143 and miR-145 expression in tumor epithelial cells and stromal cells in the primary tumors and lymph nodes. In vivo data was supplemented with functional studies of cell lines in vitro to evaluate the role of miR-143 and miR-145 in NSCLC tumorigenesis. In our cohort, stromal miR-143 (S-miR-143) and miR-145 (S-miR-145) expression in primary tumor tissue were independent prognosticators of improved disease-specific survival (DSS) in female (S-miR-143, HR: 0.53, p = 0.019) and male patients (S-miR-145, HR: 0.58, p = 0.021), respectively. Interesting correlations between the miR cluster 143/145 and previously investigated steroid hormone receptors from the same cohort were identified, substantiating their gender dependent significance.

PMID: 29867125 [PubMed - in process]

A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Norsk publikasjonsliste - lør, 06/09/2018 - 09:30
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A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 04;8(1):8549

Authors: Skjefstad K, Johannessen C, Grindstad T, Kilvaer T, Paulsen EE, Pedersen M, Donnem T, Andersen S, Bremnes R, Richardsen E, Al-Saad S, Busund LT

Abstract
Micro RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNA cluster 143/145 has been reported in several malignancies, but their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive. This study investigates the prognostic impact of miR-143 and miR-145 in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in NSCLC tissue. Tissue from 553 primary tumors and 143 matched metastatic lymph nodes were collected and tissue microarrays were constructed. In situ hybridization was used to evaluate miR-143 and miR-145 expression in tumor epithelial cells and stromal cells in the primary tumors and lymph nodes. In vivo data was supplemented with functional studies of cell lines in vitro to evaluate the role of miR-143 and miR-145 in NSCLC tumorigenesis. In our cohort, stromal miR-143 (S-miR-143) and miR-145 (S-miR-145) expression in primary tumor tissue were independent prognosticators of improved disease-specific survival (DSS) in female (S-miR-143, HR: 0.53, p = 0.019) and male patients (S-miR-145, HR: 0.58, p = 0.021), respectively. Interesting correlations between the miR cluster 143/145 and previously investigated steroid hormone receptors from the same cohort were identified, substantiating their gender dependent significance.

PMID: 29867125 [PubMed - in process]

A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Related Articles

A gender specific improved survival related to stromal miR-143 and miR-145 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 04;8(1):8549

Authors: Skjefstad K, Johannessen C, Grindstad T, Kilvaer T, Paulsen EE, Pedersen M, Donnem T, Andersen S, Bremnes R, Richardsen E, Al-Saad S, Busund LT

Abstract
Micro RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNA cluster 143/145 has been reported in several malignancies, but their role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive. This study investigates the prognostic impact of miR-143 and miR-145 in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in NSCLC tissue. Tissue from 553 primary tumors and 143 matched metastatic lymph nodes were collected and tissue microarrays were constructed. In situ hybridization was used to evaluate miR-143 and miR-145 expression in tumor epithelial cells and stromal cells in the primary tumors and lymph nodes. In vivo data was supplemented with functional studies of cell lines in vitro to evaluate the role of miR-143 and miR-145 in NSCLC tumorigenesis. In our cohort, stromal miR-143 (S-miR-143) and miR-145 (S-miR-145) expression in primary tumor tissue were independent prognosticators of improved disease-specific survival (DSS) in female (S-miR-143, HR: 0.53, p = 0.019) and male patients (S-miR-145, HR: 0.58, p = 0.021), respectively. Interesting correlations between the miR cluster 143/145 and previously investigated steroid hormone receptors from the same cohort were identified, substantiating their gender dependent significance.

PMID: 29867125 [PubMed - in process]

Improvement in Overall Survival in a Randomized Study That Compared Dacomitinib With Gefitinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and EGFR-Activating Mutations.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00

Improvement in Overall Survival in a Randomized Study That Compared Dacomitinib With Gefitinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and EGFR-Activating Mutations.

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 04;:JCO2018787994

Authors: Mok TS, Cheng Y, Zhou X, Lee KH, Nakagawa K, Niho S, Lee M, Linke R, Rosell R, Corral J, Migliorino MR, Pluzanski A, Sbar EI, Wang T, White JL, Wu YL

Abstract
Purpose ARCHER 1050, a randomized, open-label, phase III study of dacomitinib versus gefitinib in treatment-naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and activating mutations in EGFR, reported significant improvement in progression-free survival with dacomitinib. The mature overall survival (OS) analysis for the intention-to-treat population is presented here. Patients and Methods In this multinational, multicenter study, patients age 18 years or older (≥ 20 years in Japan and Korea) who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 and newly diagnosed NSCLC with activating mutations in EGFR (exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R) were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to dacomitinib (n = 227) or gefitinib (n = 225). Random assignment was stratified by race (Japanese, Chinese, other East Asian, or non-Asian) and EGFR mutation type. The final OS analysis was conducted with a data cutoff date of February 17, 2017; at that time 220 deaths (48.7%) were observed. Results During a median follow-up time of 31.3 months, 103 (45.4%) and 117 (52.0%) deaths occurred in the dacomitinib and gefitinib arms, respectively. The estimated hazard ratio for OS was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.582 to 0.993; two-sided P = .044). The median OS was 34.1 months with dacomitinib versus 26.8 months with gefitinib. The OS probabilities at 30 months were 56.2% and 46.3% with dacomitinib and gefitinib, respectively. Preliminary subgroup analyses for OS that are based on baseline characteristics were consistent with the primary OS analysis. Conclusion In patients with advanced NSCLC and EGFR activating mutations, dacomitinib is the first second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to show significant improvement in OS in a phase III randomized study compared with a standard-of-care TKI. Dacomitinib should be considered one of the standard treatment options for these patients.

PMID: 29864379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

ARCHER 1050: Hitting an Important Mark in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer?

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00

ARCHER 1050: Hitting an Important Mark in EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer?

J Clin Oncol. 2018 Jun 04;:JCO2018793059

Authors: Piotrowska Z, Gainor JF

PMID: 29864378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous NSCLC.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 04;:

Authors: Socinski MA, Jotte RM, Cappuzzo F, Orlandi F, Stroyakovskiy D, Nogami N, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Moro-Sibilot D, Thomas CA, Barlesi F, Finley G, Kelsch C, Lee A, Coleman S, Deng Y, Shen Y, Kowanetz M, Lopez-Chavez A, Sandler A, Reck M, IMpower150 Study Group

Abstract
Background The cancer-cell-killing property of atezolizumab may be enhanced by the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated immunosuppression with bevacizumab. This open-label, phase 3 study evaluated atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not previously received chemotherapy. Methods We randomly assigned patients to receive atezolizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (ACP), bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (BCP), or atezolizumab plus BCP (ABCP) every 3 weeks for four or six cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with atezolizumab, bevacizumab, or both. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival both among patients in the intention-to-treat population who had a wild-type genotype (WT population; patients with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations were excluded) and among patients in the WT population who had high expression of an effector T-cell (Teff) gene signature in the tumor (Teff-high WT population) and overall survival in the WT population. The ABCP group was compared with the BCP group before the ACP group was compared with the BCP group. Results In the WT population, 356 patients were assigned to the ABCP group, and 336 to the BCP group. The median progression-free survival was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (8.3 months vs. 6.8 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.74; P<0.001); the corresponding values in the Teff-high WT population were 11.3 months and 6.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.38 to 0.68]; P<0.001). Progression-free survival was also longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group in the entire intention-to-treat population (including those with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations) and among patients with low or negative programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, those with low Teff gene-signature expression, and those with liver metastases. Median overall survival among the patients in the WT population was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (19.2 months vs. 14.7 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of ABCP was consistent with previously reported safety risks of the individual medicines. Conclusions The addition of atezolizumab to bevacizumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival among patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression and EGFR or ALK genetic alteration status. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower150 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02366143 .).

PMID: 29863955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Higher Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women Than Young Men in the United States.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00
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Higher Lung Cancer Incidence in Young Women Than Young Men in the United States.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 24;378(21):1999-2009

Authors: Jemal A, Miller KD, Ma J, Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Islami F, Devesa SS, Thun MJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed a higher incidence of lung cancer among young women than among young men in the United States. Whether this pattern has continued in contemporary birth cohorts and, if so, whether it can be fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors are unknown.
METHODS: We examined the nationwide population-based incidence of lung cancer according to sex, race or ethnic group, age group (30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, and 50 to 54 years), year of birth (1945 to 1980), and calendar period of diagnosis (1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014), and we calculated female-to-male incidence rate ratios. We also examined the prevalence of cigarette smoking, using data from the National Health Interview Survey from 1970 to 2016.
RESULTS: Over the past two decades, the age-specific incidence of lung cancer has generally decreased among both men and women 30 to 54 years of age in all races and ethnic groups, but the declines among men have been steeper. Consequently, among non-Hispanic whites, the female-to-male incidence rate ratios increased, exceeding 1.0 in the age groups of 30 to 34, 35 to 39, 40 to 44, and 45 to 49 years. For example, the female-to-male incidence rate ratio among whites 40 to 44 years of age increased from 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.92) during the 1995-1999 period to 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.23) during the 2010-2014 period. The crossover in sex-specific rates occurred among non-Hispanic whites born since 1965. Sex-specific incidence rates converged among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians and Pacific Islanders but crossed over from a higher incidence among men to a higher incidence among women only among Hispanics. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among women born since 1965 has approached, but generally not exceeded, the prevalence among men.
CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of historically higher incidence rates of lung cancer among men than among women have reversed among non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics born since the mid-1960s, and they are not fully explained by sex differences in smoking behaviors. Future studies are needed to identify reasons for the higher incidence of lung cancer among young women. (Funded by the American Cancer Society.).

PMID: 29791813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

Lungekreft i JCO, NEJM eller The Lancet - fre, 06/08/2018 - 18:00
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Neoadjuvant PD-1 Blockade in Resectable Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med. 2018 05 24;378(21):1976-1986

Authors: Forde PM, Chaft JE, Smith KN, Anagnostou V, Cottrell TR, Hellmann MD, Zahurak M, Yang SC, Jones DR, Broderick S, Battafarano RJ, Velez MJ, Rekhtman N, Olah Z, Naidoo J, Marrone KA, Verde F, Guo H, Zhang J, Caushi JX, Chan HY, Sidhom JW, Scharpf RB, White J, Gabrielson E, Wang H, Rosner GL, Rusch V, Wolchok JD, Merghoub T, Taube JM, Velculescu VE, Topalian SL, Brahmer JR, Pardoll DM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Antibodies that block programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein improve survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but have not been tested in resectable NSCLC, a condition in which little progress has been made during the past decade.
METHODS: In this pilot study, we administered two preoperative doses of PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in adults with untreated, surgically resectable early (stage I, II, or IIIA) NSCLC. Nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) was administered intravenously every 2 weeks, with surgery planned approximately 4 weeks after the first dose. The primary end points of the study were safety and feasibility. We also evaluated the tumor pathological response, expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), mutational burden, and mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell responses.
RESULTS: Neoadjuvant nivolumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and was not associated with delays in surgery. Of the 21 tumors that were removed, 20 were completely resected. A major pathological response occurred in 9 of 20 resected tumors (45%). Responses occurred in both PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors. There was a significant correlation between the pathological response and the pretreatment tumor mutational burden. The number of T-cell clones that were found in both the tumor and peripheral blood increased systemically after PD-1 blockade in eight of nine patients who were evaluated. Mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones from a primary tumor with a complete response on pathological assessment rapidly expanded in peripheral blood at 2 to 4 weeks after treatment; some of these clones were not detected before the administration of nivolumab.
CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant nivolumab was associated with few side effects, did not delay surgery, and induced a major pathological response in 45% of resected tumors. The tumor mutational burden was predictive of the pathological response to PD-1 blockade. Treatment induced expansion of mutation-associated, neoantigen-specific T-cell clones in peripheral blood. (Funded by Cancer Research Institute-Stand Up 2 Cancer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02259621 .).

PMID: 29658848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]